English Vocab

Second-wave feminism 
In the well-established democracies of the West, feminism in the post-World War II era became concerned with independence, and with greater political action to improve women’s rights and economic equality between the genders, to address the rights of female minorities, rather than absolute rights, such as, suffrage (the right to vote in political elections.).

A new phrase, the ‘second wave’, was coined by Marsha Lear. It was referred to as the second wave, as its advocates highlighted the failure of the early, or the first-wave feminism to achieve its aims. The term ‘first wave’ was used retroactively, after the emergence of the second-wave feminism, to describe the more recent feminist movement.
The first wave of feminism was the first concerted movement for the reform of women’s social and legal inequalities in the nineteenth century.
It was about women as women; it glorified motherhood, accepted the basic aspects of the division of labour between the sexes, that women were responsible for home and for bringing up children, while men were responsible for the public world of paid work.
Based on these parameters, the arguments for women’s suffrage were articulated. The second wave of feminism was about women as persons celebrating personhood. It called for the breaking down of the division of labour between the sexes, which was perceived to be the reason for women’s oppression. It demanded that women ought to play an equal role in the world of paid work and that men should play an equal part at home.
While the first wave defined equality around the idea of sameness between women and men, the second wave stressed on equality on the basis of the difference between women and men. The second wave was shaped and dominated by what has come to be known as radical feminism.
The phenomenon primarily emerged in the late 1960s in New York and Boston in the United States among women who were politically active in the civil rights movement and the anti-Vietnam war campaigns. Some of its ideas had their roots in the cultural/ material feminist tradition of the United States in the late nineteenth century, though many viewed radical feminism as a new deviation of the 1960s.
It emerged in response to women’s experience of the limitations of ‘equal rights’ of their marginalisation in the left-wing and radical male dominated movements and, above all, in the advances in knowledge and understanding which women had attained thanks decades of access to education. Radical feminism located the root cause of women’s oppression in patriarchy (a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it.). It symbolized female rage (anger or aggression associated with conflict arising from a particular situation.)against male power, against patriarchy.
Many of them were ideologically with the New Left and its ‘great refusal’ of American capitalism. They wanted a radical transformation of society and of personal life, and were ready to speak out about abortion, rape, lesbianism, orgasms, imperialism and welfare. Kate Millett (1934-2017) was among the notable second-wave feminists of this period.
Her Sexual Politics (1969) presented a ‘manifesto for revolution’ in the winter of 1968 to a women’s group at Columbia University, where Millett was a doctoral student in English and comparative literature. The manifesto declared that when one group ruled over another, the relationship between the two was political.
When such an arrangement was carried out over a long period of time, it evolved into an ideology. The doctoral thesis was revised and published as Sexual Politics. Over 10,000 copies were sold in a fortnight.
“The fusing together of the words “sexual” and “politics” opened up new theoretical possibilities for feminist debate”, according to Whelehan. This enabled “the assertion that all things private and personal in women’s lives were affected by the politics of the state and patriarchy”.
The New York Times in its review in 1970, described the book as the ‘Bible of Women’s Liberation’. Time magazine described her as ‘the Mao Tse Tung of Women’s Liberation’. The sexual domination of men over women was the most pervasive ideology, and the most fundamental power structure in society.
The principles of patriarchy were two-fold: (a) men shall dominate over women, and (b) older men shall dominate over the young. Sexual politics was the politics of patriarchy. All historical civilisations were patriarchies: their ideology was embedded in male supremacy. The family was the chief institution of patriarchy. Patriarchal power is socially constructed as opposed to biological or the innate (inborn; natural.).
Male supremacy and women’s subordination were the core of patriarchal ideology. Millet explained how patriarchy, or male-rule, was maintained~ “Government is upheld by power, which is supported through consent (social opinion), or imposed by violence. Conditioning to an ideology accounts to the former.
But there may be a resort to the latter at any moment when consent is withdrawn ~ rape, attack, sequestration (the action of taking forcible possession of something),beatings, murder. Sexual politics obtains consent through the socialisation of both sexes to patriarchal policies”. The family, for Millet, was the main source of ideologicalindoctrination (the process of teaching a person or group to accept a set of beliefs uncritically.), and was needed for reproduction of patriarchy.
It socialised ‘the young into the patriarchal ideology’s prescribed attitudes towards the categories of role, temperament and status’. Millett pointed out that in traditional families, women did not have a legal standing, nor did they own property.
In contemporary patriarchy, women have rights but are economically subordinate, first because they are not paid for the work that was done at home, and second because they were restricted to subordinate employment opportunities. A complete sexual revolution, which would destroy the traditional taboos on homosexuality, bastardry, adolescent, pre and extra-marital sex, was needed to overthrow patriarchy.
The family would be replaced with professional collective care of the young, and with public education. This revolution would come about primarily in the realm (a field or domain of activity or interest.) of human consciousness with the destruction of male supremacist ideas and its traditional forms of socialisation. Millett acknowledged the changes that have taken place in institutions but not in the habits of the mind. Her arguments were akin to Gramsci and Althusser who held that the state maintained its rule though not through force but primarily by ideological hegemony (leadership or dominance, especially by one state or social group over others.).
She catalogued (make a systematic list of (items of the same type).) ‘instances of sexual politics’, which she drew from modern literature, and in this context mentioned the works of DH Lawrence, Henry Miller and Norman Mailer. She pointed out that Freud continued with the misogynistic (strongly prejudiced against women.) Western philosophical tradition that Aristotle initiated; one that saw a woman as an incomplete male. Freud presumed the superiority of the male anatomy, which prevented him from identifying social institutions as the cause for women’s unhappiness. She wanted feminism to be revolutionary and not incremental like the first-wave feminism. The striking feature of Millett’s Sexual Politics, according to Mead, was its vision of freedom and a radically transformed society.
Writing on Millett, Andrea Dworkin said: “Betty Friedan had written about the problem that had no name. Kate Millett named it, illustrated it, exposed it, analysed it”. Millett’s Sexual Politics provided a transformative critique of feminism and has been a reference point since then. No feminist treatise (a written work dealing formally and systematically with a subject.) is complete without reference to her seminal contribution.

1. Suffrage (noun): (the right to vote in political elections/ the right to participate in making a decision) (मताधिकार)
Synonyms: Right To Vote, Voting Rights, The Vote, Enfranchisement, Ballot.
Example: When you cast your vote, you exercise your privilege of suffrage.
Origin: from Latin suffragium

2. Innate (adjective): (a quality or ability which you are born with, or which is present naturally)   (अंतर्जात/सहज)
Synonyms: Inborn, Natural, Inbred, Congenital, Inherent, Intrinsic, Instinctive.
Antonyms: Acquired, Extrinsic.
Example: Penguins are born with the innate inclination to live together.
Verb forms:
Innateness (noun) - सहजता
Origin: from Latin innatus, from in- ‘into’ + nasci ‘be born’.

3. Patriarchy (noun): (a system of authority in which males are the power holders(पितृसत्ता)
Synonyms: Patriarchate, Society Led By Men, Male-Dominated Society.
Antonyms: Matriarchy.
Example: A firm believer in patriarchy, the CEO hired only men to lead his company.
Origin: From Greek patriarkhēs ‘ruling father’

4. Sequestrate (verb): take forcible possession of (something) (ज़ब्त करना)
Synonyms: Confiscate, Seize, Take Possession Of, Expropriate, Appropriate.
Example: According to security check points, the operator has the authority tosequestrate suspicious items from anyone.
Verb forms: Sequestrate, Sequestrated, Sequestrated.
Related words:
Sequestration (noun): (the action of taking forcible possession of something)

5. Indoctrinate (verb): (teach (a person or group) to accept a set of beliefs uncritically.) (समझाना/शिक्षा देना)
Synonyms: Propagandize, Proselytize, Inculcate, Peddle.
Example: In slavery, an overseer uses force to indoctrinate the slaves into believing they were less than human.
Verb forms: Indoctrinate, Indoctrinated, Indoctrinated.
Related words:
Indoctrination (noun): (the process of teaching a person or group to accept a set of beliefs uncritically.)

6. Realm (noun): (a field or domain of activity or interest.)  (अधिकार/क्षेत्र)
Synonyms: Domain, Sphere, Area, Field, Arena
Example: In recent years, many technological innovations have deepened my interest in the realm of computer science.
Origin: from French reaume

7. Hegemony (noun): (leadership or dominance, especially by one state or social group over others/ Preponderant influence or authority over others/ the dominance or leadership of one social group or nation over others.) (आधिपत्य)
Synonyms: Authority, Command, Power, Predominance
Antonyms: Subordination, Obedience, play second fiddle to
Example: When the dictator was chased out of the country, his hegemony over the people came to an end.
Related words:
Hegemonic (adjective) – प्राधान्य

8. Catalogue (verb):  (make a systematic list of (items of the same type).)   (सूची/नामावली)
Synonyms: Classify, Categorize, Systematize, Systemize, Index, List.
Example: On New Year’s Eve the band played many songs from their catalogue of hits.
Verb forms: Catalogue, Catalogued, Catalogued.
Related words:
Catalogue (noun) - a list of works of art in an exhibition or collection, with detailed comments and explanations.
Origin: from Latin katalegein ‘pick out or enrol’.

9. Misogynistic (adjective):  (strongly prejudiced against women.)  (नारी द्वेषीय)
Synonyms: Sexist (Prejudiced Towards Male), Anti-Feministic, Male Chauvinistic.
Antonyms: Feminist.
Example: The women’s basketball team refused to work with their coach because of his misogyny and his rude behavior.
Related words:
Misogynist (adjective) - a person who dislikes, despises, or is strongly prejudiced against women.
Misogyny (noun) - an intense dislike of females

10. Treatise (noun): (a written work dealing formally and systematically with a subject.) (प्रकरण )
Synonyms: Disquisition, Exposition, Discourse, Dissertation.
Example: Josh’s Radnor’s treatise on the Civil War is very informative.
Origin: from Old French traitier
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