English Vocab

Far From Saral
Rising disclosure requirements in ITR forms subject taxpayers to unnecessary burden.
Even as start-ups and their investors fret over (to worry about someone or something) the levy of angel tax on equity infusions, the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) has come up with yet another googly to complicate their lives. In its latest set of Income Tax Return forms for 2018-19, it has called for individual investors to disclose the excess consideration, if any, received from the sale of unquoted shares over and above their ‘fair market value’. The intent behind this is unexceptionable. Billions of dollars in angel funding have flowed
into Indian start-ups lately. As each venture receives successive rounds of funding, incumbent (necessary for (someone) as a duty or responsibility) investors get to pocket substantial (referring to something that is greater or larger than normal) capital gains on exit, information on which is often hidden from the public domain. Requiring individual investors to disclose such deal values will allow the taxman to not just levy tax on the specific investor, but also to cross-verify valuation claims across investors in a venture, and ensure a consistent basis of valuation over time.
But the headaches for angel investors may lie in the taxman’s interpretation of the term ‘fair market value’. ‘Fair value’ assessments even for listed entities are a subjective exercise, which yield widely varying numbers based on the method used, market conditions and investor fancy for the sector. In the absence of profits or tangible (a thing that is perceptible by touch) assets, the valuation of new-age start-ups is an even more qualitative exercise. They do not easily lend themselves to textbook methods for arriving at the ‘fair market value’. The new ITR disclosures can therefore open up a Pandora’s box of discretionary (considered to be chosen or voluntary) assessments and disputed claims between start-up investors and their assessing officers. If the Centre is keen to provide impetus (a force that causes something to be done or to become more active) to start-up funding, it should ideally refrain from prescribing valuation methods and allow buyers and sellers to be the arbiters (one who can settle a disagreement between parties) of deal valuations.
It is not just start-up investors who are expected to now disclose more. The new ITR forms require salary earners to provide breakups of their salary already captured in Form 16, call for additional details on house property and carve out new forms with lengthy investment and bank account disclosures for high-income earners and NRIs. In the last few years, contrary to the stated purpose of moving to simpler tax filings, the CBDT has demanded more and more intrusive details from taxpayers, to aid its data collation efforts. Given that the Department already collects prodigious (very large in size, force, or extent; enormous) amounts of data at source from banks, TDS deductors and facilitators of high-value transactions and has made taxpayers jump through hoops (To face or have to complete many challenges in pursuit of something that one wants/Do just about anything to please someone) to link PAN and Aadhaar to their ITRs, it is surprising that it can’t put Big Data and mining capabilities to better use. Subjecting the entire taxpaying population to a rising compliance burden to crack down on a few bad apples (A person whose own words or actions negatively impacts an entire group of people) is anything but a friendly tax regime.
Courtesy- The Hindu Business Line (Economy)
1. Prodigious (adjective): (Very large in size, force, or extent; enormous) (विलक्षण, अति विशाल)
Synonyms: Enormous, Huge, Colossal, Immense, Vast, Great
Antonyms: Small, Unexceptional
Example: She is very proud of her son who has a prodigious talent for playing the cricket.
Related words: Prodigiously (adverb) Prodigiousness (noun)
2. Arbiter (noun): (One who can settle a disagreement between parties) (मध्यस्थ)
Synonyms: Arbitrator, Go-between, Mediator, Moderator, Referee, Adjudicator,Judge
Antonyms: Fighter, Troublemaker, Brawler, Fomenter
Example: The teacher acted as an arbiter when she tried to mediate a disagreement between two students.
3. Discretionary (adjective): (Considered to be chosen or voluntary) (विवेकाधीन)
Synonyms: Optional, Non-Compulsory, Voluntary
Antonyms: Compulsory, Obligatory
Example: Banks have a tendency to loan money through strict methods, but individuals can make a discretionary loan to others without regard to their backgrounds.
Related words: Discretionarily (adverb)
4. Incumbent (adjective): (Necessary for (someone) as a duty or responsibility) (निर्भर)
Synonyms: Holder, Bearer, Occupant, Current, Existing, Present
Example: The incumbent president of the company is resigning from office so a younger person can take control of the business.
Related words: Incumbent (noun) Incumbently (adverb)
5. Substantial (adjective): (Referring to something that is greater or larger than normal) (ठोस)
Synonyms: Considerable, Real, Material, Weighty, Solid, Sizeable
Antonyms: Insubstantial, Worthless
Example: Due to his strong compassion for the charity, the businessman donated a substantial amount of money to the cause.
Related words: Substantiality, Substantialness (noun) Substantially (adverb)
6. Impetus (noun): (A force that causes something to be done or to become more active) (प्रेरणा, कारण)
Synonyms: Motivation, Stimulus, Incitement, Incentive, Inducement
Antonyms: Counterincentive, Hindrance
Example: The high crime rate was the impetus for the hiring of one hundred new police officers in our city.
7. Tangible (noun): (A thing that is perceptible by touch) (वास्तविक, स्पर्श द्वारा प्रत्यक्ष)
Synonyms: Touchable, Palpable, Tactile, Material, Physical
Antonyms: Intangible, Impalpable, Untouchable
Example: Although Jack had a good business plan, the bank was unwilling to give him a loan because he lacked tangible assets.
Related words: Tangible (adjective) Tangibility, Tangibleness (noun) Tangibly (adverb)
8. Jump through hoops (Idiom): (To face or have to complete many challenges in pursuit of something that one wants/Do just about anything to please someone.) (कुछ पाने के लिए कई चुनौतियों को पूरा करना)
Synonyms: Strive, Try Hard, Attempt, Endeavour, Aim, Aspire
Antonyms: Drop, Give Up, Quit
Example: They had to jump through hoops to get the admission of their child into America's prestigious school.
9. Levy (noun): (to impose (a tax or fine) {Verb}, an act of levying a tax, free, or fine.) (कर लगाना)
Synonyms: Impose, Charge, Exact, Demand, Raise, Collect
Antonyms: Discharge, Muster out
Example: The Presidential candidate promised to levy a tax on foreign production in the effort to stimulate American manufacturing.
10. Fret Over (phrasal verb): (To worry about someone or something.) (चिन्ता प्रकट करना, चिड़चिड़ाना, खीजना)
Synonyms: Agonize, Bother, Brood, Carp, Chafe
Antonyms: Be happy, ignore, not worry, please, delight, appease, calm, pacify, placate, soothe
Example: The result is not going to decide your life so you need not fret over it.
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