English Vocab

Electric cars and us
While adopting a technology, Indians have made changes to their attitudes and societal norms but often also made the technology work around their instincts. One area where the law of the jungle (the principle that those who are strong and apply ruthless self-interest will be most successful.) seems to prevail (reign) is the road, especially in cities. As a rule, typically, two-wheelers and cars don’t consider lanes important.
We don’t want to wait our turn but keep jumping lanes and wading (intervene in (something) or attack (someone) vigorously or forcefully.) around obstacles. We seem to be possessed by a primal urge to get ahead of others even if it means the driver of the car or the two-wheeler rider on the other lane has to jam hard on his brakes. In many cities, dents on car bumpers are the norm.
Breaking rules
It’s like how we behave in queues — at shops, temples and cinema ticket counters. A person who is standing at a discrete (individually separate and distinct.) distance behind another can often find someone arriving just then, barging in (To abruptly and/or rudely interrupt or intrude on someone or something without warning.).That little space is available, so it’s there to be taken, seems to be the working rule. We are in a mad hurry although the few minutes we save rarely fetch any benefit, while introducing chaos and disorder. And vehicles driven by internal combustion engines, with their inherent limitations, are a good fit for us. At slow speeds, common in city driving, these vehicles take their own time to speed up and, hence, don’t feed into themanic (showing wild, apparently deranged, excitement and energy.) urges of Indian drivers. They require rather elaborate transmission systems and, in unison, the engine and the transmission create enough noise to alert others to their presence.

Over the next 15 years, however, Indian driving is likely to be disrupted by electric vehicles that the Indian government seems keen on introducing, without transitioning to hybrids. Far less polluting and carbon-emitting, the electric car, however, poses a challenge to Indian driving practices. The motor is much quieter than the engine and the transmission system has fewer parts too. “All one hears is wind, tyre and road noise, which is minimal in city driving,” says Mahesh Babu, CEO of Mahindra Electric. Imagine thousands of cars moving around, quietly, on our roads!
Electric motors are among the perkiest prime movers. After starting, they can very quickly ramp up to full speed, unlike the internal combustion engine that needs to idle and takes time to increase speed. “Instant torque and quick acceleration,” sums up Mr. Babu. Maximum torque is available for a range of speeds too.
Electric mobility
Another crucial, efficiency-boosting attribute of the electric car will be regenerative braking. The electric motor powering the car can reverse its role, becoming a generator and charging the battery. The generator load is the resistance that provides braking torque and it can be varied if you want to just bring down the speed, not stop the car altogether.
Now, here is how these features don’t sync with our present state of driving. Given our habit of not waiting for our turn and switching lanes frequently and taking sharp turns, we may need to honk more to announce our car’s presence — a prospect that we may not hate altogether though. Or the manufacturer may engineer in some noise, although that would defeat the beauty of the technology. To ensure we don’t just step on the accelerator pedal and zoom our peppy (lively and high-spirited.), powerful electric car right into other vehicles on our chaotic (topsy-turvy) roads, manufacturers can add a time delay in the software.
Our habit of jamming on the brakes may make regenerative braking less useful. During sudden braking, for safety reasons, normal braking takes over after initial regenerative braking. In other words, the energy savings can come down. “Consumer behaviour and adoption will determine the system that electric vehicles in the future will have,” says Mr. Babu.
Electric cars present a unique (sui generis) opportunity for Indian drivers. Instead oftamping (to put a check or curb on) down the technology, we can instead change our habits — be mindful of lanes, wait our turn, be polite (genteel) and respectful of others and their needs, and make our driving smoother, as well as make best use of regenerative braking.
Perhaps there will be a spin-off (a collateral or derived product or effect) to this. We may just become more orderly while standing in queues, and even consider inviting others to go ahead of us.

1. Wade (verb): (Intervene in (something) or attack (someone) vigorously or forcefully.) (आड़े आना/ आगे बढ़ना/आक्रमण करना) 
Synonyms: Attack, Set upon, Launch oneself at, Weigh into, Lash out at, Hit out at.
Antonyms: Avoid, Dodge.
Example: The pair of thieves waded the traveling merchant, stealing his goods and leaving him half-dead on the side of the road.
Verb forms: Wade, Waded, Waded.

2. Discrete (adjective): (Individually separate and distinct.) (अलग/असतत/पृथक)
Synonyms: Separate, Distinct, Individual, Detached, Unattached, Disconnected, Discontinuous, Disjunct.
Antonyms: Connected, Attached, Combined.
Example: A watch is made up of many discrete gears.
Related words:
Discretely (adverb) - अलग से
Discreteness (noun) - पृथकता
Origin: from Latin discretus ‘separate’

3. Barge in (phrasal verb): (Move forcefully or roughly/ To abruptly and/or rudely interrupt or intrude on someone or something without warning.) (जबरदस्ती घुसना)
Synonyms: Push, Shove, Force, Elbow, Shoulder, Jostle, Bludgeon, Intrude.
Example: In India People often barges in the queues.
Verb forms: barge in, barged in, barged in.

4. Manic (adjective): (Showing wild, apparently deranged, excitement and energy.) (उन्मादी/पागल)
Synonyms: Mad, Insane, Deranged, Demented, Maniacal, Lunatic.
Antonyms: Sane, Prudent.
Example: Greg’s sports mania is so ridiculous that he can watch the same game hundreds of times without getting bored.
Related words:
Mania (noun) - Excessive desire, excitement, or enthusiasm
Origin: from Greek mainesthai ‘be mad’.

5. Peppy (adjective): (Lively and high-spirited.) (जोशीला/प्रफुल्ल)
Synonyms: Animated, Perky, Spirited, Sprightly, Vivacious.
Antonyms: Depressed, Lazy, Lethargic, Apathetic.
Example: Chloe was peppy, and she jumped for joy when she got everything she wanted for Christmas.
Related words:
Pep (noun) - Energy and high spirits; liveliness.

6. Topsy-turvy (adjective): (In a state of complete confusion and disorder.) (गड़बड़/उल्टा-पुल्टा)
Synonyms: Disorderly, Confused, Muddled, Jumbled, Chaotic, Disorganized, Messy.
Antonyms: Ordered, Organized, Straight.
Example: A topsy-turvy scene took place in the mall when a toddler wandered off from his mother.

7. Sui generis (adjective): (Being the only one of its kind; unlike anything else./ particularly remarkable, special, or unusual.) (विशिष्ट/अद्वितीय)
Synonyms: Distinctive, Individual, One And Only, In A Class By Itself, Unique.
Antonyms: Common, Ordinary, Usual, Commonplace
Example: When Twitter launched, it was viewed as sui generis because of its unique style of communication.
Origin: From Latin, literally ‘of its own kind’.

8. Spin -off (noun): (A collateral or derived product or effect) (उपोत्पाद/अतिरिक्त उत्पाद)
Synonyms: By-Product, Derivative, Offspring, Out-Growth.
Antonyms: Original.
Example: The Voice is a singing talent competition that is a spinoff of American Idol which was popularized in 2001.

9. Genteel (adjective): (Characterized by affected politeness, refinement, or respectability.) (शिष्ट/सभ्य)
Synonyms: Refined, Proper, Polite, Well Mannered, Cultivated, Cultured, Sophisticated.
Antonyms: Uncivilized, Unrefined, Unsophisticated, Boorish.
Example:  Sarah’s genteel upbringing led her to treat everyone with respect.
Related words:
Genteelly (adverb) - अभिजात ढंग से
Origin: from French gentil ‘well-born’.

10. Reign (verb): (Be the dominant feature of a situation or place.) (प्रबल होना/आधिपत्य करना)
Synonyms: Prevail, Be established, Be common, Be widespread, Be in force, Be in effect.
Antonyms: Be confined, Be restricted
Example: Truth and justice reign in the world.
Verb forms: Reign, Reigned, Reigned.

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