English Quiz

Directions (1-8): Read the following passage and answer the following questions. Some words are highlighted to help you answer some of the questions.
Today, thermal generation capacity accounts for about two-thirds the installed generation capacity in the country. This shows that though there is increasing awareness about the environmental impact of fossil fuels, the reliance on thermal plants is unlikely to end any time soon. Thermal plant capacities are large and therefore targeted capacity additions can be achieved by constructing fewer such plants. On average, it would take 18 solar or wind projects to generate the same quantity of power as one thermal plant. For the same reason, switching from fossil fuel to renewables will remain challenging as the administrative overheads that would have to be incurred in setting up the multiple projects could significantly add to the cost.

Not surprisingly, infrastructure projects have an inverse relationship between size and unit cost, indicating economies of scale. As the capacity of power plants increases, the average cost of power per MW reduces. The average cost per MW for a thermal plant is about 25% lower than that of a solar plant. In order to surmount the cost advantages that large thermal plants enjoy today, we must focus on developing larger solar and wind power plants that can also exploit similar economies of scale. The next point is that of ownership. Over the last two decades, 63% of the total planned generation capacity has come from the private sector. Private investment has been even more pronounced in renewables, accounting for almost 90% of investment in wind and solar projects.

Lower capacity cost has a direct impact on electricity tariffs. Electricity tariffs broadly consist of two components: fixed capacity costs and operation and maintenance costs, which include fuel expenses. In general, capacity costs account for more than 90% of the levelised cost of electricity, irrespective of the fuel type. If we are able to create additional capacity at lower cost, then it will play a big role in keeping electricity tariffs low. Private investment in the power sector has not only helped in augmenting capacity but has also helped in lowering cost.

Even as total capacity in generation has been growing, the cost of installing additional capacity has fallen. The reasons for the decline could be as follows: First, advances in technology have resulted in the construction of larger power plants. Compared to the 15-year period before 2013, power plants installed in the past six years have on average been significantly bigger, even twice as large in the case of hydel power. The economies of scale in power generation appear to have been dramatic. The second point could be the increasing share of private sector investment. The share of private sector in capacity creation has been 70% in the last decade as compared to 46% in the decade before that. And, as indicated previously, private sector capacity has lower costs.
Falling marginal costs suggest that retiring some existing high-cost capacity plants with newer plants could be explored. With economic growth, the demand for power in India is only going to increase further. To put things in perspective, China added generation capacity that was equal to a third of India’s total installed capacity in 2018. As India continues to ramp up capacity, it is imperative to create generation assets with the lowest unit cost by optimising plant capacities and encouraging private sector investment.
Declining marginal cost for capacity provides opportunities for replacing existing capacity with newer capacity that are more efficient. However, the challenge of replacing fossil fuel-fired plants with renewables prevails.

Q1. Why won’t the renewable energy source replace the existing Thermal plants in the country?
(a) The Infrastructure projects costs needed for the fossil fuels is very less that makes it reasonable to be set up by different entities.
(b) The Administrative overheads for setting up the fossil fuels is precise that leads to more thermal plants in the country. 
(c) The targeted capacity of the Thermal Plants is profuse along with the overhead costs involved in setting up renewables sources make it difficult.
(d) Power Quality Issues of the renewable energy sources is not up to the mark as compared to the fossil fuels.
(e) None of these.
L1Difficulty 3
QTags Reading Comprehension

Q2. What economies of scale do thermal plants enjoy compared to those of Solar plant?
(a) Findings about a virtuous cycle between public policies and technological improvement is key to the further development of solar across all markets.
(b) The average cost per MW of Solar plants is lower as compared to that of thermal plants due to voluminous capacity of the thermal plants.
(c) The Solar plants generates 25% lower than that of other renewable energy sources.
(d) India’s solar story through its compelling business case is maximizing the falling renewable technology costs as the key to future energy decarbonisation.
 (e) None of these.
L1Difficulty 3
QTags Reading Comprehension

Q3. How could we make the electricity tariffs under control?
(a) By creating the extra electricity with minimum costs involved in it
(b) Looking to the other viable options healthier for the environment.
(c) By allowing the foreign direct investment into the power sector of the country.
(d) Minimising the share of private sector investment.
(e) None of these.
L1Difficulty 3
QTags Reading Comprehension

Q4. How could the generation of power be achieved to meet the energy supply in India?
(a) Thinking proactively about plant missions can also create opportunities to suspend or shut down operations at plants that may no longer be needed.
(b) Leaders may need to create new incentives to consider costs involved in the  generation .
(c) The costs involved in the
(d) Owners of power plants need to reduce costs in response to flattening load growth, the rise of renewables, and changes in the competitiveness of coal to gas.
(e) Creating generation assets with the lowest unit cost is linked to optimising plant capacities and using private investment
L1Difficulty 3
QTags Reading Comprehension

Q5. What are the factors responsible for the decline in the cost of installing against the total capacity generation grown in few decades?
(a) Economies of scale in power plants have improved across the globe.
(b)Construction of the few and larger power plants compared to earlier power plants.
(c) Private sector investment has been significant in the few decades.
(d) Only (b)
(e) Both (b) & (c)
L1Difficulty 3
QTags Reading Comprehension

Q6.Which of the following words has a meaning which is SIMILAR to the meaning of the word “increasing”?
 (a)Augment
(b)Obsolescence
(c)Abolition
(d)Demolition
(e)Fissure
L1Difficulty 2
QTags Synonym

L1Difficulty 2
QTags Synonyms

Q7. Which of the following words has a meaning which is SIMILAR to the meaning of the word “surmount”?
(a)Reward
(b)Appealing
(c)Eschewing
(d)Shirking
(e) Overcome
L1Difficulty 2
QTags Synonym

Q8. Which of the following words has a meaning which is ANTONYMS to the meaning of the word “imperative”?
(a) Expunge
(b) Crucial
(c) Asinine
(d) Beguile
(e) Trivial
L1Difficulty 2
QTags Antonym

Directions (9-15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
It is a remarkable moment for France, the country voting for the 39-year-old political newbie, Emmanuel Macron, as its next president. In just a year since creating his centre-left party En Marche!, Macron defeated second-generation politician Marie Le Pen, who, evoking an inward-looking “nationalism”, was feverishly anti-Muslim, promised to counter terrorism with violence, close the country to immigrants and “salvage” France out of the European Union (EU). With Macron’s win, there is a distinct sigh of relief across Europe.
In 2003, when I was 23, I had started working in the office of the President of the French Republic, Jacques Chirac. I was policy analyst to Jerome Monod, Chirac’s chief counsellor. The 71-year-old president closely relied on Monod, who’d been an astute businessman for decades. Once elected, Chirac requested Monod to quit his position and join him at the Elysees. The loyal Monod agreed, later earning the reputation of being the crafty “shadow president” of France.
Interestingly, my conversations with both were always sprinkled with marvellous references to France’s history. They had deep respect for the distinct cultures of the east. Their mannerisms were always poised; they seemed to embody the stature of “old France”, as did most of Chirac’s cabinet ministers, “grands hommes” of politics and business. Severely nationalistic, old-wordly men, who’d lived the history of France, and found it difficult to take France into the future now.
They fiercely defended France on the international stage, but at home, they floundered on reforms. Flip-flopping on economic issues, under their leadership, impending reforms in France’s labour market never saw light. Immigrants rioted as employment and living conditions worsened. For progress, “old France” desperately needed economic reforms, which it never could achieve.
Chirac’s presidency ended in 2007, but France had little respite thereafter. The country suffered another decade of obscure political leadership, with a GDP growth rate that hardly budged above one per cent in the past five years. Its people were further traumatised by numerous terror attacks. Meanwhile, several manufacturing companies moved out of France, to the eastern parts of the EU which had more flexible labour laws. Many French citizens also work clandestinely, to benefit from the state’s unemployment dole that can even equal 80 per cent of one’s salary. Any attempted reform by the government has only led to the French going on strikes.
A year and a half ago, I first met Macron. He was then France’s minister of economy. Devoid of any airs, he spoke candidly and laughed over a conversation about technology, economy and France. We talked about the labour market reforms France urgently needs. He told me he supported open borders, free trade and free movement of labour. I remembered my years at the Elysee — I was sure that no one from the 2003 cabinet ministry would have Macron’s worldview.
In conversation, Macron suggested that France must prove itself capable of serious internal reforms, to persuade the EU towards less austere economic policies. I agreed, but also pointed out that former French presidents, including President Chirac, had tried labour market reforms, but failed terribly.
However, I was convinced that Macron represents hope. He is young, passionate and well-meaning. What he proposes — labour market reforms — is the source of much of France’s problems today. Many former governments gave up when the French took to the streets in opposition. It is therefore a marvellous moment in France’s history that many of the same French citizens who were anti-reforms have now voted for Macron.
France is ready for change, finally. But will young, inexperienced Macron be able to deliver it to them?
Soon after Macron’s victory, the newly elected president said, “I will protect and defend France’s vital interests. I will protect and defend Europe.” His main goal, he said, was to “calm people’s fears, restore France’s confidence, gather all its people together to face the immense challenges that face us.” His speech was heavy on generalisations.
He even talked about a digital revolution, an ecological transition. But his speech was entirely bereft of mentions of specific economic reforms.
Today, Macron’s challenge for France is two-fold: To pull the French out of a nationalism that mainly draws energy from its historic, sometimes imagined, greatness, and to roll out economic reforms. Unless France bifurcates its long-nurtured, inward-looking nationalism from politics, its people cannot be mobilised to collaborate towards the economic progress of their country, in an open world.

Q9. According to the passage, what was/were the commitment(s) made by the politician Marie Le Pen?
(i) Rescuing France from being the part of European Union.
(ii) Addressing terrorism ferociously
(iii) Banning the entry of refugees to France
 (a) Only (i) is true
(b) Only (ii) is true
(c) Both (i) and (iii) are true
(d) Both (ii) and (iii) are true
(e) All are correct
 L1Difficulty 3
QTags Reading Comprehension

Q10. According to the author, what was/were the adverse effects faced in France during and after Jacques Chirac’s presidency?
(a) People traumatized by terror attacks.
(b) Mobilization of manufacturing companies due to strict labour laws.
(c) Living conditions of Immigrants got worsened.
(d) Unsuccessful implementation of reforms.
(e) All of the above
 L1Difficulty 3
QTags Reading Comprehension

Q11. What is the author’s tone in writing the passage?
(a) Reflective
(b) Argumentative
(c) Descriptive
(d) Critical
(e) Analytical
 L1Difficulty 3
QTags Reading Comprehension

Q12. Which of the following is false in context of the passage?
(a) Macron suggested that France must prove itself capable of serious internal reforms.
(b) Macron is young, passionate and well meaning.
(c) Newly elected President of France has said that he will protect and defend France’s vital interests.
(d) There is distinct sigh of relief across Europe after the Macron’s win.
(e) Macron’s speech highlights the mention of special social reforms.
 L1Difficulty 3
QTags Reading Comprehension

Q13. Which of the following characteristics is/are true about ‘Macron’?
(a) He is in favour of free trade, open borders and free movement of labour.
(b) He was earlier France’s minister of economy.
(c) His speech is based on generalisation.
(d) Both (a) and (b) are true
(e) All are true
 L1Difficulty 3
QTags Reading Comprehension

Directions (14):  Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
Q14.  Feverishly
(a) analytically
(b) composedly
(c) expeditiously
(d) frantically
(e) fiercely
L1Difficulty 2
QTags Synonym

Directions (15):  Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
 Q15. Floundered
(a) idle
(b) prosper
(c) stumble
(d) terrible
(e) obscure
L1Difficulty 2
QTags Antonym
  
                                                              SOLUTIONS


S1. Ans. (c)
Sol. Referring to the lines of the first paragraph, “Thermal plant capacities are large and therefore targeted capacity additions can be achieved by constructing fewer such plants. On average, it would take 18 solar or wind projects to generate the same quantity of power as one thermal plant. For the same reason, switching from fossil fuel to renewables will remain challenging as the administrative overheads that would have to be incurred in setting up the multiple projects could significantly add to the cost”, it is implicit that the correct option is option (c).

S2. Ans. (b)
Sol. Referring to the lines mentioned in the second paragraph . “As the capacity of power plants increases, the average cost of power per MW reduces. The average cost per MW for a thermal plant is about 25% lower than that of a solar plant, it is clear that option (b) holds true.

S3. Ans. (a)
Sol. Referring to the lines of the third paragraph “If we are able to create additional capacity at lower cost, then it will play a big role in keeping electricity tariffs low. Private investment in the power sector has not only helped in augmenting capacity but has also helped in lowering cost” it is pretty clear that option (a) is the most viable option.

S4. Ans. (e)
Sol. Referring to the lines in the paragraph “As India continues to ramp up capacity, it is imperative to create generation assets with the lowest unit cost by optimising plant capacities and encouraging private sector investment”.
From these lines it is pretty clear that our correct option is option (e).

S5. Ans. (e)
Sol. Referring to the lines of the fourth passage it is pretty clear that both option (b) & (c) holds true. This can be inferred from that paragraph.

S6. Ans. (a)
Sol. Increasing means become or make greater in size, amount, or degree.
Obsolescence means the process of becoming outdated.
Abolition means termination.
Demolition means destruction.
Fissure means split or crack (something) to form a long, narrow opening.

S7. Ans. (e)
Sol.  Surmount means overcome (a difficulty or obstacle).
Shunning means persistently avoiding.
Eschewing means abstaining from.
Shirking means avoiding or neglecting.

S8. Ans. (e)
Sol. Imperative - of vital importance; crucial
Expunge- Delete
Asinine-Stupid, Foolish
Beguile- To deceive
Trivial means Unimportant
So the correct option is option (e).

S9. Ans. (e)
Sol. Refer to the first paragraph,  “evoking an inward-looking “nationalism”, was feverishly anti-Muslim, promised to counter terrorism with violence, close the country to immigrants and “salvage” France out of the European Union (EU)”. Hence all the sentences are true in context of the passage.

S10. Ans. (e)
Sol.  Refer to the fourth and fifth paragraphs of the passage. All these points are clearly mentioned there. Hence (e) is the correct option.

S11.Ans. (b)
Sol. The author’s tone is Argumentative because here the author is taking a particular stand and justifying his opinion through various instances.

S12. Ans. (e)
Sol.  Refer to the first line of last paragraph. “his speech was entirely bereft of mentions of specific economic reforms.” Hence sentence (e) is false in context of the passage.

S13. Ans. (e)
Sol. Refer to the sixth paragraph of the passage, it can be inferred from there that all these points are true about Macron in context of the passage. 

S14. Ans. (d)
Sol. Feverishly means energetic or excited manner. Hence it has same meaning as ‘frantically’Analytically means relating to or using analysis.
Fiercely means aggressively.

S15. Ans. (b)
Sol. Floundered means struggle. Hence it has opposite meaning to prosper.
Stumble means losing one’s balance.

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