English Vocab

In The Wake of Tripura
The Left is being pushed to the margins. It must mobilise secular, democratic elements to fight Hindutva forces.
Two clear conclusions emerge from the Tripura election verdict. First, it is exceedingly difficult for an Opposition party that has an incumbent (one that occupies a particular position or place) government in any state to withstand the onslaught of the BJP. This party brings to the electoral arena the might of its Central government to buttress (to support, strengthen, or defend (something)) its own well-financed electoral effort.

True, the Manik Sarkar government had been crippled in its last term in office by a financial squeeze which had doubtless affected its performance, but this squeeze itself had been the result as much of the recommendations of successive Finance Commissions that had been grossly unfair to Tripura, as of the Centre’s wilful niggardliness (meanly or ungenerously small or scanty).
By-elections where the BJP gets defeated, and even assembly elections in states where the BJP has been in power, either alone or in alliance, and where the popular wrath (strong vengeful anger or indignation) it has earned leads to an opposition party’s victory, such as in Punjab, cannot negate this fact. An opposition-ruled state government can scarcely survive the single-minded effort of the BJP with its immense resources, combined with the machinations of the central government it controls, to dislodge it from power through electoral means. Even apparently well-entrenched governments like those of Mamata Banerjee and Naveen Patnaik are vulnerable on this score notwithstanding their by-election successes.
Second, in almost every state, the polity is now tending to get polarised into the BJP on one side and one anti-BJP opposition force on the other. The fates of the Aam Aadmi Party in Punjab, of the Congress in Odisha and now in Tripura, are obvious examples of this trend where opposition parties, other than the one which is perceived to be the main anti-BJP force, are getting marginalised. This suggests that those opposed to the BJP are pooling their votes in favour of one anti-BJP party, whose identity may differ from one state to another, instead of frittering
(to spend or waste bit by bit, on trifles, or without commensurate return) them by backing candidates belonging to several different parties. The electorate sees the political choice before it as either supporting or keeping out the BJP.
If these trends continue then the ultimate denouement (the outcome of a situation, when something is decided or made clear) will be one where the BJP will be the only overwhelming national party, facing in different states different political opponents; and since these opponents can be easily beaten down, there will be BJP governments in almost all the states. The BJP’s explicitly (in a clear and detailed manner, leaving no room for confusion or doubt)-stated objective of creating an opposition-free India will thus get realised; and in such a case of course ushering in a Hindu Rashtra will pose no great difficulty.
It may well be asked: Are we not exaggerating the dangers of this denouement? Even if it comes to pass, it would be argued, the so-called “anti-incumbency factor” will work against the BJP governments in the different states, if not immediately, then at least after a while; and once these governments are voted out of power, as the Tripura government has been, then BJP rule at the Centre, even if not overthrown in the near future, will become difficult to sustain. Hence there is no need to be greatly exercised over this trend of extreme centralisation of power in the hands of the Hindutva party: This situation, no matter how disturbing in the short run, will get reversed in the long run.
The reasons for disquiet however are several: First, as Keynes had famously remarked, “in the long-run we are all dead”. We cannot, even in principle, simply put our trust in the long run.
Second, one cannot underestimate the Hindutva forces’ ability to manipulate voting behaviour in their own favour, to turn even losing situations into winning ones, in all kinds of devious (showing a skilful use of underhand tactics to achieve goals) ways. These include presiding over communal riots, spreading false rumours, and manufacturing news about “surgical strikes” against this or that “enemy of the nation”. In such a case, the so-called “long run”, when they are supposed to be voted out of power, will never come.
Third, if they are allowed to go their way, with little resistance from the forces of parliamentary opposition, which merely keeps waiting for the arrival of the “long run” when they would have lost their electoral appeal, then other extra-parliamentary forces which represent rival fascisms opposed to them will come up. In that case, the country will be torn apart through vicious (deliberately cruel or violent) conflicts.
The time to intervene, therefore, is now, before it becomes too late. The Left, which is being pushed into the margins by the offensive of the BJP has to defend the nation, and through that very process also defend itself, by mobilising all the secular and democratic elements in society to fight the Hindutva forces before they tighten their stranglehold over it.
Of course, a mere hotch-potch of parties coming together to fight the BJP will carry little credibility with the people; and even if it succeeds in dethroning the BJP, unless it effects some tangible improvement in the people’s lives, it will soon create sufficient disillusionment among them to allow the Hindutva party to come back to power at the next round.
The coming together of the secular and democratic parties, therefore, will have to be around a common minimum programme which is workable and to which all parties coming together are committed. Such a programme must include not only overcoming the pervasive (capable of affecting or influencing everything) fear, the assault on thought, and the flourishing of communal, patriarchal, and casteist attitudes that has occurred of late, but also introducing a set of universal welfare state measures, especially in the spheres of education, employment and health. Whoever is willing to come on such an agenda should be a part of the broad alliance, whose constituents therefore should be decided not on a priori grounds but on this criterion of agreeing to an agenda for change.
For the Left it is a fight for survival. If it recognises the seriousness of the situation and, in the wake of the reverse in Tripura, changes its political stance to take the lead in organising an anti-Hindutva resistance, then some good at least would have come out of the Tripura reverse.
Courtesy-Indian Express (Polity)
1. Incumbent (adjective) : (One that occupies a particular position or place) (निर्भर, आश्रित, विद्यमान)
Synonyms: Occupant, Inhabitant, Existing, Extant, Contemporary
Antonyms: Former, Erstwhile, Quondam, Precursory
Example: Since our incumbent linen supplier is going out of business, we need to find a new company to provide our inventory.
Related words: phrase:- ‘incumbent on/upon’ (to be someone’s duty or responsibility to do something)
Incumbent (noun) (a person who holds a particular office or position), incumbently, adverb
2. Buttress (verb) : (To support, strengthen, or defend (something)) (समर्थन करना ,मजबूत करना या बचाव करना)
Synonyms: Strengthen, Reinforce, Fortify, Support, Bolster, Corroborate
Antonyms: Weaken, Debunk, Degrade, Attenuate, Slack Up
Example: To buttress his lecture, Dr. Nagpal prepared a PowerPoint presentation of fifty slides.
Verb forms: Buttress, Buttressed, Buttressed
Related words: Buttressed, Buttressless (adjective) Buttress (verb)
3. Niggardly (adjective) : (Meanly or ungenerously small or scanty:) (तुच्छ)
Synonyms: Paltry, Limited, Restricted, Modest, Insufficient, Negligible, Insubstantial, Skimpy
Antonyms: Lavish, Abundant, Bounteous, Copious
Example: When the cruel foster mother fed the children, she gave them niggardly portions that made them only hungrier.
Related words: Niggardliness (noun) Niggardly (adverb)
4. Wrath (noun) : (Strong vengeful anger or indignation) (क्रोध, रोष)
Synonyms: Annoyance, Indignation, Outrage, Pique, Chagrin, Vexation, Resentment
Antonyms: Happiness, Good Humour, Calmness, Serenity, Benevolence, Amiability
Example: In mythology mortals generally feared the wrath of the powerful gods.
Related words: Wrath, Wrathless (adjective)
5. Fritter (verb) : (To spend or waste bit by bit, on trifles, or without commensurate return) (अलग-थलग करना)
Synonyms: Dissipate, Intersperse, Strew, Disseminate, Cast Away, Isolate, Segregate
Antonyms: Aggregate, Unify, Coalesce, Mingle, Amalgamate, Embodied
Example: Why do you fritter your time and thought away on trivial things?
Verb forms: Fritter, Frittered, Frittered
Related words: phrase:-‘fritter away’(to waste something, often in small increments.)
Fritterer (noun)
6. Denouement (noun) : (The outcome of a situation, when something is decided or made clear.) (नतीजा, फल, समाप्ति)
Synonyms: Outcome, Upshot, Consequence, Conclusion, Termination, Aftermath
Antonyms: Origin, Emanation, Fount, Beginning, Prelude
Example: The film ended with a denouement that left the audience speechless.
7. Explicitly (adverb) : (In a clear and detailed manner, leaving no room for confusion or doubt.) (स्पष्ट रूप से, स्पष्टतया)
Synonyms: Definitely, Unequivocally, Completely, Categorically, Absolutely, Apparently
Antonyms: Indefinite, Ambiguous, Implicitly, Covertly, Dubious, Clandestinely
Example: The map shows explicitly where the fire alarms are located
Related words: Explicit (adjective) Explicitness, (noun)
8. Devious (adjective) : (Showing a skilful use of underhand tactics to achieve goals.) (चालाक, कपटपूर्ण, कुटिल)
Synonyms: Artful, Beguiling, Cagey, Crafty, Cunning, Guileful
Antonyms: Artless, Guileless, Ingenuous, Innocent, Straightforward, Naive
Example: Because the devious salesman wanted to make his sales quota, he began to lie to potential customers about the benefits of his product.
Related words: Deviously (adverb) Deviousness (noun)
9. Vicious (adjective) : (Deliberately cruel or violent.) (दोषपूर्ण, ख़राब)
Synonyms: Brutal, Ferocious, Savage, Violent, Dangerous, Remorseless, Merciless, Unlawful, Unrighteous,
Antonyms: Kind, Benevolent, Amicable, Gracious, Decent, Ethical,
Example: Mark is a vicious person who will spends years plotting how to take revenge on people that hurt him in any way.
Related words: Viciously (adverb) Viciousness (noun)
10. Pervasive (adjective) : (Capable of affecting or influencing everything) (व्यापक, फैलनेवाला)
Synonyms: Prevalent, Pervading, Permeating, Extensive, Ubiquitous,
Antonyms: Limited, Restricted, Cramped, Intensive, Superficial
Example: In many cities, police corruption is a pervasive issue that touches all communities.
Verb forms: Pervade, Pervaded, Pervaded
Related words: Pervasively (adverb) Pervasiveness (noun)
  

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